本專案計畫由國家教育研究院教科書發展中心與國立臺灣師範大學教育學系合作辦理。主軸一為進行和平教育經典書目與期刊論文之研讀會,主軸二為辦理教科書研究方法工作坊-以和平教育為例,一方面期能有系統地耙梳經典文獻論述,探討與批判教科書和平教育之困境與爭議,另一方面期能對參與本計畫的研究者或有志趣的研究者,提供教科書和平教育研究方法之實作訓練,以厚實研究的基礎能力。
 

研讀會擬每月聚會1次,每次2小時,一年預計聚會12次,進行有關教科書文本與和平教育相關研究文獻論述之導讀,每篇論述皆安排主讀者報告20分鐘,評論人10分鐘,及共同討論時間。所有參與者均需閱讀原文資料,並參與對話討論。
 

The Center for Textbook Development at National Academy for Educational Research (NAER) and the Department of Education at National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) worked together on a research project entitled “Discourse and Praxis on Textbooks Construction for Peace Education” in hopes of carrying out comprehensive study on issues related to discussions of relevant textbook content and peace education and engaging in extensive dialog and carrying out feasibility studies and develop peace education appropriate for the Taiwan context. For the research project, which commenced in 2010, peace education literature from Taiwan and around the world is being collected, organized, and peace education programs promoted abroad introduced into that in Taiwan and set up a peace education website specifically for this research project to serve as a platform for providing and exchanging information about the activity. Since 2011, classic peace education literature workshops, covering such topics as research, organization, and textbook analysis methods, have been held and relevant achievements are being compiled into a book for publication (currently expected to be published in October 2013). In order to realize innovative thinking in the design of Taiwanese teaching materials to understand the influence of different cultures and perspectives of various countries on textbooks, starting in 2012, we analyzed developed international peace education in continental Europe, Middle East and East Asia to understand how these regions employ cross-national history textbooks to work together to create experience to give an account of themselves and to better understand others, to resolve potential enmity, clashes, and conflict, and to consider the feasibility of cross-national cooperation in the writing of history textbooks and design curriculum and teaching materials in Taiwan that open up a new international perspective and drive new research in peace education in Taiwan.

計畫主持人
甄曉蘭 (國立臺灣師範大學教育學系教授)
 
共同主持人
潘文忠 (國家教育研究院副院長)
陳麗華 (淡江大學課程與教學研究所教授)
 
 
中文 | English
Peace Education
The concept of peace education became a part of school education reform between the two world wars to help people of different countries to learn more about each other through education and to reduce stereotypes, as a means to putting an end to war. The fact, however, that governments of a number of countries around the world continued to employ school education to indoctrinate their citizens with nationalism, even distorting the truth to that end, and to realize their own interests resulted in more wars breaking out. Although the challenges of WWII caused serious reservations and setbacks for peace education, peace education continued to develop as it was driven by trends throughout the years. These trends, including anti-war sentiment in the 60s and 70s triggered by the Korean and Vietnam Wars, the anti-nuclear arms proliferation movement in the 80s, the emphasis on civic education following violence between peoples of different cultures, ethnic groups, and religions within countries during the 90s, and education that stresses resolving conflict which, since 2000, has been a rapidly developing school education reform. These show the close connection between developments in peace education and current world events and how the peace movement has developed its own theories which continue to be realized in school peace education programs, stressing the importance of diversity and openness, respect and sharing, and mutual cooperation to teach students fundamental skills needed to survive in our post-modern world, including communication skills, appropriate ways for facing and dealing with diverse cultures.

 

The overview of peace education is a comprehensive participatory process and includes what teaching is “for” and what teaching is “about.” For example, democracy, human rights, non-violence, social and economic justice, gender equality, environmental sustainability, disarmament, traditional peacemaking, international law, and human security. The most fundamental and effective tool for realizing peace education ideals is curriculum, because it consists of a series of plans and arrangements for achieving educational objectives as the implementation of peace education curriculum can imbue students with the values and attitudes they should have as they pursue peace in this globalized world of ours.

 

Particularly, the script in textbooks can be used for teaching ethnic hatred or they can be used to promote the truths of peace and to subtly influence generations of children in countries around the world as well as how they get along. In today’s world of changing technology, ubiquitous disasters, and grim economic conditions, UNESCO is working tirelessly to facilitate understanding around the world as it underscores the idea that textbooks should be accurate, balanced, updated, and unbiased and should be designed to enhance perception and understanding between different peoples and countries.

 

The International Forum on Education for Non-Violence (UNESCO, Portugal, 22 May 1996) put forward general recommendations for action in curriculum development should include:

  1. Texts and other materials promoting non-violence, culture of peace, tolerance, solidarity, human rights, gender equality, active citizenship, and care for the environment;
  2. Integration of principles and strategies of non-violence and culture of peace into all subject areas and disciplines in the curriculum;
  3. Taking into account local realities and traditions within a multi-cultural and international framework.

 

The Inter-Regional Experts’ Meeting (UNESCO, Paris, 14-15 June 2007) aimed at developing ‘Guidelines for Promoting Peace and Intercultural Understanding through Curricula, Textbooks and Learning Materials.’ All presentations and discussions focused on three major themes:

 

  • Theme 1: Intercultural and international perspectives on the impact of textbooks, materials and media on learning;
  • Theme 2: Beyond the text—integrating activities for thinking and building peace;
  • Theme 3: Thinking and learning across cultures and disciplines—skills for a sustainable world.

 

In the context of globalization, advocating and implementation of peace education is becoming increasingly important and textbook development and design of particular importance.

 

 

Reference

 

Harris, I. (1988). Peace Education. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Harris, I. (2002). Conceptual Underpinnings of Peace Education. In Salomon & Nevo (Eds.), Peace Education: The Concept, Principles, and Practices Around the World. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Reardon, B. (1988). Comprehensive peace education: Educating for global responsibility. New York: Teachers College Press.

UNESCO(1996). Culture of peace, guidelines for a plan of action for UNESCO international project for culture of peace and non-violence in educational institutions. International Forum on Education foe Non-Violence, Sintra, Portugal, 22 May, 1996.

UNESCO(2007). Inter-Regional Experts’ Meeting: Thinking and Building Peace through Innovative Textbook Design. 14-15 June, 2007. UNESCO Headquarters Annex, Bonvin XIV.

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